Carolyn Maue with Colleen Bastian
What does leadership coaching do? What makes coaching most effective? What qualities should you look for in a coach? In other words, what are the “ingredients” of successful coaching?
Earlier this year, I compiled data on my own coaching services by sending a survey to gather information and insights from leaders and key stakeholders who had participated in the coaching process with me. To build upon this subjective information, I turned to my friend and colleague, leadership coach Dr. Colleen Bastian, knowing that she was familiar with this topic through her research for her doctoral dissertation.
An interesting and thought-provoking article Colleen mentioned piqued my interest with the reference of “ingredients”, as my upcoming book is Gourmet Leadership: Turn Up the Heat on Your Secret Sauce! McKenna and Davis made a bold claim that the active ingredients of clinical psychotherapy could be applied to coaching. Based on empirical research, McKenna and Davis explained that the active ingredients of clinical psychotherapy included:
- client extra-therapeutic factors (which explain 40% of the variance in client outcomes),
- the therapeutic alliance (30%),
- expectancy, hope, and placebo (15%) and,
- theory and techniques (15%).
The first ingredient is the client’s ability and willingness to change, which according to the authors, determines 40% of the positive outcome. As Colleen described, “Even though the article was somewhat controversial, since many people see psychotherapy and coaching as very different disciplines, there are certain things that we know are similar. For example, the success of the coaching engagement is directly impacted by the client’s desire to change.” Colleen went on to describe how she uses this technique in “chemistry” meetings with her prospective clients: “I look to see how open they are to the process of development and change and how suspicious they are. For example, are they worried who’s going to know that they are being coached? I listen to their voice, the way that they talk about it, and the way they express their curiosity vs. skepticism about coaching. And if overall they seem to have a relatively high level of commitment, then I have a good sense that we should proceed.”
The second ingredient is the relationship between the client and the coach, which attributes to 30% of the success. Colleen says, “When I think about the coaching engagements that I’ve had, the ones that I find that are truly successful usually have a strong relationship component. There’s a lot of trust that we have in our working relationship. They’re hiring me because they want me to challenge them, in a respectful and empowering way that helps them grow. So that’s what they come to me for. And that’s why I’m able to help them be successful.”
I find this to be true my own coaching practice as well. This quote from the survey I conducted earlier this year illustrates this ingredient:
“I felt seen by Carolyn. In her own quiet way, she helped me identify strengths I was underutilizing and encouraged me to think bigger and aim higher in my goals for my team and the faculty. After working with her, I now feel excited about exercising my leadership in areas that are important to me like diversity, inclusion and equity.”
An interesting phenomenon that Colleen and I discussed regarding the relationship was the aspect of “fit” in coaching – the chemistry between the coach and the leader. We both have had the experience of meeting a client whom we initially wondered about in terms of fit – stylistically, would we click and resonate? And yet, inevitably, once the choice was made and the coaching relationship ensued, those issues of fit abated as we delved into the issues and solutions generated from the coaching conversations. So both of us have learned that a strong coaching relationship can be built among many different types of leadership and style of coaches.
The third ingredient, the client’s expectations and hope, determines 15% of the coaching success. Colleen pointed to suggestions from the article on how the coach can activate hope within the clients, including sharing stories of success with other clients, connect clients with others who have faced and surmounted the same issues, and recognize that the coach is part of the successful equation. This quote from my survey exemplifies this ingredient: “As I was trying to find my footing in a new role with greater responsibility, she was both a sounding board and a support, validating my observations, encouraging my decision-making, and providing ideas and strategies for addressing certain problems.”
The fourth ingredient is the coach’s theory and techniques, which is 15% of the successful outcome. Colleen and I agreed that it is an essential aspect of coaching to assist the client in clarifying what they hope to achieve in the coaching process. To achieve that, the tools coaches use need to be customized to achieve the outcome of the coaching to the clients. Colleen said, “ I might use a specific assessment tool, or use a visual technique like metaphor, or hold reflective space to encourage the client to think deeply in quiet for a few minutes.” Helping the client focus on what they want to achieve, and finding the tools and path to achieve that, is an essential ingredient of the coaching process.
Colleen and I agree that the most important ingredients that make coaching successful are the client’s desire and willingness to grow and change, and the relationship between the coach and the leader. So, if you are considering engaging with a coach, consider the areas of your leadership and work that you’d like to change and improve, and then seek a coach in whom you have confidence and has the skills and experience to help you grow in those areas.
Bastian, C.C. (2015). Does Academic Training Influence Executive Coaches’ Stated Beliefs and
Practices? (Publication No. 3729358) (Doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology). ProQuest Dissertations.
Maue, Carolyn (2020). Coaching Evaluation by Coaching Clients and Coaching Evaluation by
McKenna, D.D. & Davis, S.L. (2009). Hidden in plain sight: The active ingredients of executive
Coaching, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2 (3), 244-260.
What does leadership coaching do? What makes coaching effective? What approaches are most effective in coaching, for yourself or someone whom you believe would benefit from it?
These are questions that I continue to explore in my evolution as a leadership coach.
One way to identify these variables is to gather data from coaching clients and their constituents. As part of this ongoing effort, I sent out a survey in 2020 to two groups who have experienced my coaching practice first-hand: 1) leaders who had work with me in leadership development coaching; and 2) key stakeholders in the coaching process, including those who referred or recommended coaching, or decision-makers, peers and staff who had participated in a 360° process to provide feedback regarding the leaders’ effectiveness.
The survey results provided rich insights into what the leaders and key stakeholders I have worked with found most useful in coaching. They also gave important recommendations as to how I could continue to improve my coaching services and delivery. Their input helped inform my objective – to continue to identify what makes coaching most effective, and to clarify what coaching approaches are most useful.
The focus of coaching is often to assist the leader to build skill and competency in specific areas. Here are areas of improvement as seen by leaders and stakeholders in key leadership competencies, accompanied by specific comments when applicable:
- Increased strategic thinking – 80% of the coaching clients and key stakeholders reported significant improvement in the leader’s application of strategic thinking to opportunities and challenges.
- Increased confidence – A high percentage of the respondents noticed increased confidence, executive presence, and composure. ““Thanks to coaching, the self-confidence of each of the emerging leaders soared. Each one became more decisive and sensitive to how they impacted the people around them. Critically, these leaders also became more willing to address poor leadership or behavior in others; their coaching showed them the ‘right path’ and they weren’t willing to accept anything less in the workplace.”
- Leading Others – Over 90% of the clients reported improvement in leading and mentoring direct reports. “The coaching has made me think about my leadership role more intentionally and this has helped our faculty get through a very challenging time with the Covid19 epidemic. Carolyn helped me to see their trust in me as an asset that I can utilize to help when we are asking faculty to do difficult work for the good of the institution.”
- Career Advancement – “Following the completion of coaching, the leader I referred to you was promoted to a newly-created position in a higher-ranking office, built her own team, took on a much larger portfolio of responsibilities, and was recognized by leadership for her accountability and innovativeness.”
- Positive reputation – Key stakeholders noted a strong return-on-investment due to the positive impact on the leader’s reputation with customers, within the department and throughout the organization.
The results also identified the specific approaches used by the coach that they found effective:
- Focus on strengths: “I felt seen by Carolyn. In her own quiet way, she helped me identify strengths I was underutilizing and encouraged me to think bigger and aim higher in my goals for my team and the faculty. After working with her, I now feel excited about exercising my leadership in areas that are important to me like diversity, inclusion, and equity.”
- Provide support and suggestions: “As I was trying to find my footing in a new role with greater responsibility, she was both a sounding board and a support, validating my observations, encouraging my decision-making, and providing ideas and strategies for addressing certain problems.
The surveys were invaluable in identifying ways in which my coaching services could be improved, including:
- Helping clients build their capacity to assume more responsibilities
- Increasing their collaboration skills with peers and stakeholders
- Helping leaders develop their mentorship abilities more fully
- Requesting (Key stakeholders) to be kept in the loop as to how the leader was doing in their development process
I have integrated these into my coaching practice, in the effort to continually improve my coaching effectiveness.
What should you expect from coaching, and what should you look for in a coach? Use this data to help you consider areas of leadership in which you’d like to improve and consider the approaches and qualities in a coach that will be most useful to you!
Welcome to the second of a two-part series in Communicating in a Crisis, with my friend and colleague Grant Heston, the Vice President for Communications and Marketing at Florida Southern College. We are sharing ideas to help you in your leadership during this challenging time.
Carolyn Maue: Grant, tell us a time of when you led through a crisis and how you communicated. What worked? What would you do differently?
Grant Heston: Years ago, the NCAA announced an investigation into the University of Central Florida’s athletics programs. During several months, I developed multiple possible responses and communications, including the dismissal of top athletics leadership.
When the report arrived, it was as bad as we feared. UCF immediately launched its plan and removed athletics leadership, suspended others and reorganized organizational responsibilities and reporting relationships in athletics.
The plan included a detailed timeline, starting at 8 a.m., when affected employees were notified about dismissals and suspensions. The next steps included deactivating email accounts, university credit cards, key access to facilities and securing cars owned by UCF that were used by dismissed employees.
That level of detail allowed us to ensure employees (those leaving and staying) heard the news directly from UCF leadership, rather than through rumors or media. Nothing slipped through the cracks.
When we shared the news with the university community and the public, UCF took full responsibility for what took place and apologized for its actions. Our messaging focused on creating a “Culture of Compliance” in athletics to address what went wrong. We repeatedly used that phrase.
We received national and local kudos for our decisive, well-managed response, which stood in contrast to how other institutions fumbled responding to the NCAA. Our preparation, bold and timely communications also helped UCF quickly hire outstanding new athletics leadership.
We paid close attention to our messages to employees and athletics donors, two key constituencies. But looking back, we could have devoted more time to those groups. This was a tremendous shock to the system, and if doing this again I would build in more outreach and messaging to those groups.
CM: How does a leader be sure that they are reaching different audiences, with different needs, beliefs, etc.?
GH: The best advice is to meet them where they are.
For instance, at Florida Southern College, we know that on social media, Instagram followers are mostly students, Facebook are parents and Twitter is a mix.
That allows you to tailor messages for those specific audiences. We’re past the one-size-fits-all approach.
As a leader, you also need to 1) ensure your communications teams purposefully seek out stories and feedback from diverse groups and 2) recruit and retain diverse communications employees who help you see multiple perspectives and reach different audiences.
CM: This is an incredibly important time to build new ways of assuring that you as a leader are reaching all of your constituents, and meeting their needs. The awareness that has increased as a result of the Black Lives Matter movement gives us all an opportunity to invite different voices to the table to help us do that.
CM: Grant, what is your “Secret Sauce?” What makes your leadership, and your communication, different and special?
GM: Your question assumes that I have “different and special” leadership and communications skills!
CM: Which I know you do!
In a crisis, I seek out the best, most diverse perspectives I can find. Because I’ve been blessed to have caring mentors and super smart, creative colleagues, I’d be foolish not to listen to them closely. I then combine their advice with my own instincts and develop a plan. Then we execute the plan to the best of our ability. I work hard to be a calm, level-headed voice during a crisis. Being angry, anxious and generally difficult doesn’t do anything to help solve the problem. It makes things worse.
Every leader also needs someone to tell it like it is and ask the hard questions. I’ve done that for multiple university and college presidents. “You don’t pay me to tell you it’s sunny outside when it’s pouring rain,” I’ve said many times.
I highly recommend the book The Power of Moments by Chip and Dan Heath. It applies to crisis management, but also how an institutional culture of transparency, empathy and customer service builds trust and brand loyalty. It’s an eye-opening read.
CM: This last question is one that is close to my heart, and a value that you and I share: What is the role of fun, humor or irreverence during a crisis?
GH: Great question! Humor is essential for leaders and their teams in surviving a crisis.
During a stressful time at UCF, we were preparing for a critically important public meeting. We were working late the night before and the team was clearly tired and anxious. At one point, someone said we needed an inspiring speech. Without thinking, I jumped up on a table and gave a dramatic, over-the-top recreation of one of Hollywood’s most unintentionally cheesy movie speeches. It was ridiculous and embarrassing, but it worked to break the tension and get us through the night and next day.
Years later, people still mention it to me as a leadership moment they remember. I’m just thankful there’s no video …
CM: I am sure there are many of us who are grateful there is no video of some of our past experiences! We need to remember to keep turning off the camera! Grant, thanks so much for your words of advice and for sharing your wisdom, insights and tips!
From Carolyn: I asked my friend and colleague Grant Heston for his best advice about how leaders can communicate effectively in a crisis. Grant is the Vice President for Communications and Marketing at Florida Southern College, the oldest private college in Florida and ranked by U.S. News as a “Top 10 Regional University in the South.” Grant and I got to know each other at University of Central Florida, where he spent 12.5 years, including roles as VP for Communications & Marketing and Chief of Staff. Here are his great suggestions!
Carolyn Maue: We are in the middle of a huge national crisis. What do people want to hear in a crisis? What impact does that have on how the leader communicates, i.e., frequency, repeating messages, etc.?
Grant Heston: In a crisis, I often refer to a quote from the poet William Stafford: “The signals we give should be clear … [for] the darkness around us is deep.”
Emotions run high in a crisis, rumors are everywhere and people are fearful (of layoffs, reorganizations, leadership changes, business disruptions). We’re seeing it right now across industries due to the pandemic. Anxiety is at all-time highs.
Much of that anxiety is fueled by fear of the unknown — of being in the dark. People want to know what’s happening, what’s the plan and how it will impact their lives.
To the greatest extent possible, leaders should give people what they want: information and reassurance. By communicating clearly and often, leaders light the darkness for their key audiences.
CM: I am so glad you said that about reassurance. I often tell leaders that it is an under-used tool. Studies tell us that people who are in crisis need to hear a message multiple times before it sinks in, and reassurance sort of “greases the skids.”
CM: In terms of communications, what should leaders focus on during a crisis?
GH: A few obvious tenets of good crisis communications: tell the truth. Don’t lie about or “spin” a bad situation. Apologize unreservedly for mistakes. Those should be givens.
Perhaps less obvious during a crisis is that leaders must prioritize building trust in the institution from key stakeholders. Trust is the foundation upon which a business is built; therefore, communications must focus on building and preserving trust.
Trust is built in two ways: transparency and empathy. In terms of transparency, the best communications address as many questions as possible about what’s happened and what’s next.
For instance, with so many businesses conducting COVID-19 layoffs and furloughs, transparency means answering key questions such as:
|· How many employees were let go?
· How will furloughs work?
· What’s happening with pay cuts?
· How does this affect long-term goals?
· How will this affect customers?
|· Will my job change? If so, how?
· What are you doing for ex-employees?
· Is senior leadership sharing the pain?
· How were decisions made?
· Are more layoffs, cuts coming?
An excellent recent example of COVID-19 crisis communications comes from Airbnb: in his transparent, detailed and heartfelt company-wide letter, Airbnb co-founder and CEO Brian Chesky wrote: “To those leaving Airbnb, I am truly sorry. Please know this is not your fault. The world will never stop seeking the qualities and talents that you brought to Airbnb…that helped make Airbnb. I want to thank you, from the bottom of my heart, for sharing them with us.”
CM: What messages need to be stressed in a crisis? What needs to not be emphasized?
GH: Every crisis is different, but leaders should remember five principles:
- Be engaged. Tell your story … don’t let your competition, opponents or media tell it for you. “No comment” and silence rarely worked well in the past … it doesn’t work at all in today’s culture.
- Be timely. Leaders used to have days to respond to an issue or crisis. Now it’s hours.
- Be bold. In a crisis, you’ll typically work with legal counsel, whose job is to advise caution to avoid potential litigation (understandable, that’s their job). Leaders also must consider the court of public opinion, too. Damage to your reputation can be just as problematic as a lawsuit.
- Be caring. Compassion. Kindness. These are strengths, not weaknesses, and should be a part of every communication when an organization is in the wrong or must make difficult decisions.
- Be thick-skinned. Don’t respond to every slight, mistake or complaint that comes along. When an organization addresses a nasty tweet from someone with 15 followers, it brings more attention to the tweet than if it had been left alone.
CM: I think it is important for leaders to keep the future in mind during a crisis. How much emphasis should a leader put on the future during a time of crisis?
GH: By their natures, crises force you to focus on the short term … not just in your communications but in the decision you make. Leaders must address the immediate crisis, but I encourage looking to the future at the same time.
In fact, a short-term crisis can create opportunities for an organization to build trust and grow its reputation.
CM – It is so hard to focus on the future when there are so many urgent needs. But leaders need to cast a vision, to remind that this crisis will pass, and there will be better days ahead. This is not going to last forever. And it is important to remember that there are things you and your team are learning and doing that were created as a result of this crisis which you will be able to carry forward and use in the future.
CM: Grant, thanks so much for these great tips. Part II will be coming soon, when we’ll talk about examples of communication strategies used in a crisis, and how to assure leaders are reaching a diverse audience and inclusive in their messages. Stay tuned!
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As a leadership coach, I like to concentrate on the positive – focusing on strengths and things that work well and figuring out how to do them more often or even better. It’s also important to look at the common mistakes that leaders make, and how to remediate them. Here’s a great summary – it can help you be even more effective leader, as well as prevent turnover of your valued employees. Enjoy!
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|What is your purpose? Why are you doing this job? These are key, fundamental questions as we ponder our roles as leaders. In the framework I use with leaders in their development, 5 Steps to Leadership Development, it’s the first step. As you grow in your leadership – honing your “Power of One,” this framework can help both you and those you are developing to stay on course. Here is a good article on finding your purpose. Enjoy!
My mother always said “You attract more flies with honey.” Using a strengths-based leadership approach with our own leadership style as well as the people we lead has proven to be the most effective, and encouragement and connection is key to getting that philosophy across. Here are some great tips on how to encourage and engage. Enjoy!
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One of the most important skills a leader must utilize is strategic communication – first you need a strategy, and then you need to communicate it. Here is a great formula to do just that, with some great tips. Enjoy!
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Happy New Year! We can all be working on our leadership development, no matter what our position or level of experience. Here are some great tips that are easy to implement to keep in mind. Enjoy and best wishes for a successful year in leadership!
Executive Presence is a powerful tool in one’s toolbox – at any level. It is so important for us to realize how to maximize our presence. Here’s a good reminder. Enjoy!